Kinds Of Gemstones and Hardness

Gemstone is a mixture of mineral elements. Each mineral that can be enlarged without interruption will develop a distinctive crystalline forms, namely a face outward generated kristalen structure (crystal form). There are minerals in the amorphous state, which means it does not have its own building and the crystal structure (eg glass and opal). crystallization process will be more good results if the process was more quiet and slow.
Mineral itself can be defined as a substance that is found in nature with its distinctive chemical composition and usually has a clear crystal structure, which sometimes can be transformed into specific geometrical shapes.
The term mineral can have various meanings; difficult to define mineral and therefore most people say, that the mineral is a phrase found in nature. As we know there are minerals that form: plate, pole, pyramid or cube.
One of the essential mineral that is often used as decoration material is a crystal which is an object that is homogeneous, highly geometric shape and the atoms are arranged in a crystal lattice, because building a crystal lattice is different then its also different. Crystals can form in nature (mineral) or in the laboratory.
The crystals have a slightly cupped shape (symmetric) and that on many sides limited by a flat plane, thus giving a part of its own nature to the mineral concerned.
Solids composed of atoms neatly arranged kristalen said to have structure. In good condition kristalen objects can be bound by an average field and it is called crystal (crystal) and the average field called crystal face.



There are 32 kinds of crystal glass are united in 6 crystal systems, namely:

REGULAR, Cube or third isometric same shaft length and intersect perpendicular to each other (eg diamonds, pyrite, rock salt)
Tetragonal (four-star), the third axis perpendicular to each other, the two shafts at different length while the third axis (chalkopirit example, rutile, zircon).
HEXAGONAL (six-star) crystals has a four-axle, three-axis the same length and are located in one area, bersilangdengan angle of 120 degrees (60 degrees), but the shaft of the four upright on the field and different lengths (example Apalit, beryl, corundum).
ORTOROMBIS (slices of diamonds) are not the same length as the third pivot axis intersecting du elbows and third pivot shaft cut oblique before the second field (berit, sulfur, topaz)
Monoclinic (lopsided) The third axis is not the same length, two of its axis intersecting the sliding and the third axis perpendicular to both the shaft earlier (gypsum, muscovite, augit)
Triklin (oblique, three directions) The third axis is not the same length and intersect each other oblique (albite, anortit, Distin)

The crystalline form is divided into six crystal system which is based on:

1. The ratio of long axis - the axis of crystal

2. The magnitude of the angle cross axis - the axis of crystal

To know the hardness of gemstones, it is also necessary to understand what is called a scratch. Crystal / mineral that has a hardness of less than 7 mohs if rubbed on a rough porcelain plate usually leave scars in places such as scrubbing a colored stripe and often other characteristics of the mineral itself.
Pyrite yellow gold leaves black lines.
Hematite (Fe2O3) shiny kelogam-logaman or give a blood red line
Fluisvat give a white line (mineral light colored but give the white line)


Cleavage

Parts of the gemstone is a tendency to divide into a certain direction along the flat surface, more specifically it shows the direction in which the bonds between the atoms are relatively weak and typically indicates the direction the train-cracked apart.

Hemisphere is the nature to be split according to the same field somewhat slippery

excellent cleavage
good
moderate
bad
no cleavage at all

Kinds Of Gemstones

Color gemstone

Gemstone colors seen when the process of moving some wavelength, some absorb specific wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum consisting of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
When a transfer of wavelength will affect the energy and will change color and if the gem that contain iron will usually look dark colored, while containing aluminum is typically seen brightly colored, but there is also a fixed-colored minerals such as water (crystalline) and called Idhiochromatic
Here the color is due to the innate nature there is something of substances in the gems as the source color (pigment agent) which is the minerals, namely: sulfur yellow; malakit green color; azurite blue color; pyrite yellow; magatit black color; augitwarnanya green; goethite yellow to brown; hematite red color etc.

There is also a mineral that has a variety of colors and termed allokhromatik, this is due to the presence of dye (pigment), terkurungnya some object (inclusion) or the presence of a mixture of substances (Impurities). Impurities are elements which among others consists of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and usually not present in a mixture of pure elements are concentrated in the lower gemstones.
Multicolored gemstone is very beautifull man so that man gave the title "noble" on the stones, eg diamonds which consists of only one mineral element that carbon is an object of the solid-sided eight because of the presence of substances of different blends will cause color different: colorless, yellow, light yellow, slightly bluish, red, blue slightly green, pink, pink, slightly yellow brown, black, called Carbonado, green leaves.
Many mineral show only bright color in thin sections once. Mineral bigger and thicker always gave the impression that black, as a sign among others shown by many minerals.

Light green color; if the color is getting older means growing levels of Fe in the molecule.

Density (BD) gemstone

To determine the unknown mineral BD her used a tool called heavy liquid:
First: Bromoform (ChBr)
Second: Joodmethylin (CH2 J2)
Third: Cclerici namely Thallium malonate solution of formic

Minerals with BD <2.68 light mineral


Quartz: 2.57
albit: 2.62
oligoklas: 2.64

Minerals with BD> heavy mineral 2.68

Labradorite: 2.70
Anortit: 2.76
Augite hornblende: 3.20
Maskotit: 2.90
Biotitit: 3.00
Corundum: 3.20
Tourmaline

Mineral by BD 3.3 to 4 very heavy minerals

olifin
starolit
grenade / garnet

Minerals with BD> 4 and hardness = 7

Zircon

BD = 2.65 Minerals belonging to the fraction of light and relatively low carbon double bias that is composed of
Kristalen quartz; bergkristal (colorless); amathis or amethyst
opal = actually grit acid gel
Chalcedon; crystal types crypto types (quartz crypto kristalen); k = 7; The new crystal structure visible when viewed under a microscope.
agate; crystal types crypto types (quartz crypto kristalen) = k = 7; The new crystal structure visible when viewed under a microscope
Onyx, crystal kind of crypto types (quartz crypto kristalen) = k = 7; The new crystal structure visible when viewed under a microscope
jaspis
iron grit
opal half (half opal) = no fractional nature of splitting the form of shells.

BD = 2.9 to 3.3
Jasper = Jade = Jade {Ca2 (Mg, Fe) 5 (OH) 2Si8O22} amphibole actinolite or calcium magnesium iron; menyerabut form or asbestos tiform; gray, greenish or yellowish; the twin lines; color white plagioclase, sometimes - sometimes greenish, dark green, brown, black, sometimes opaque (transparent), opaque (Translucent) or opal; field sides intersect at an angle of 550 and 1250; K = 5-6; when heated water out which showed that it was formed in an atmosphere of hydro (note the presence of a cluster OH) otherwise known as amphibole.
BD = 3.3 to 3.6
Epidote (H2 M4 "M6" 'Si6O26, M "); of rocks of sedimentary deposition or older; k = 6.5; Green-yellowish green, there is a kind of red; either hemisphere; crystallize monoclinic, prismatic; refraction of light and strong double refraction.
BD = 3.5 to 5.3
Grenade / Garnet (M3 "M2" 'SiO3O12); from old sedimentary rocks; regular crystals; bias harsh light, not biased multiple (isotropic); K = 7; either hemisphere; red, red-brown, yellow and green sparse, colorless altogether.
BD = 4
Corundum (Al2O3) are arranged very solid; Colorless -bermacam of colors; K = 9; Octahedron / Hexagonal; High refractive; Low-carbon double bias. (3.9 to 4.1)
Spinel (M '= Mg, Zr, Fe; M' '= Cr, Al, Mn); dark green; K = 7.5 to 8; The bias is high, Crystallized on a regular basis; within optical isotropic nature; cleavage is often worse
BD = 4.2
Ortit including epidote groups differ only in their compounds due to the high levels of Ce; K = 5.6; red-brown, dark red - yellow or yellow brown; such fat crystal prisms;
Tourmaline {H9Al3 (B.OH) 2Si4O19}; K = 7; Hexagonal, bad hemisphere, Bias was; Pleokroisnya very strong; jernis such as water, blue brown to black, blue tourmaline rather rarely found.
Each gemstone has been known for its density can know the value of hard rock, heavy rock of it can be calculated carat of the gem. Karat is a unit of weight in proportion to one-fifth of a gram. This unit is called the metric carats.
If we weigh heavily diamonds, diamond weight is not said to be 1 gram but weight is a 5-carat diamond, so others rubies weighing 17.8 carats, 7 carat sapphire stone etc.

The level of violence gemstones based on the Mohs Scale

Mohs scale of mineral hardness classify scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. This scale was created in 1812 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs and is one of several definisikekerasan in materials engineering. Hardness comparison method with which one is able to see the mineral scratch other minerals has long existed, was first mentioned by Theophrastus in his On The rocks around the year 200 BC, followed by Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historia about 77 AD
Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the natural ability of the sample material to scratch another material. Samples of materials used are all mineral Mohs. Minerals are pure substances found in nature. Rock teruat of one or several minerals.
As the hardest natural substances that never existed when the scale is made, diamond is placed at the top of the scale. Material hardness is measured against the scale by finding the hardest material that can scratch a soft material or otherwise. For example, if some material is able scratched by apatite but not by fluorite, its hardness on the Mohs scale can occupy grades 4 and 5.
Mohs scale is a purely ordinal scale. For example, corundum (9) two times harder than topaz (8), but diamond (10) is almost four times harder than corundum. The table below shows comparison with absolute hardness measured using sclerometer with sample images.
agate, according to the Dictionary of Terms Geology compiled MM Poerbohadiwidjojo, derived from the word meaning agat agate or similar mineral is silica (SiO2) - commonly called quartz amorphous or kriptokristalin- colored and layered. That is the ingredient agate

Regarding the benefits or efficacy agate, this raises the pros and cons. agate clearly beneficial to beautify the ring if used as ring and beautify eyes when used as a necklace pendant and so on.
As a cultural fact, many people who believe in the benefits or efficacy agate, based on its name, such as:

Moss Agate: It can improve the relationship with the natural surroundings. Green moss helps to eliminate toxins in the blood and balance the emotional energy. Red moss helps purify the blood and increase physical stamina.
Agate Tree: Helping in introspection more clearly, to see the world through a wider viewing angle and reduce fever and toxicity.
Agate lines / Ribbons: Assist in attracting strength, overcoming not have enough strength or courage
Lace Agate / Interwoven: Overcoming despair and depression, causing excitement and relaxation of muscle tension and spasms. Blue lace agate helps balance body fluids and give peace of emotion.
Agate resemble bird feathers Strengthens blood vessels and overcome fear for no apparent reason. Useful to reduce fear in the hunt or find directions.
Agate spots: extra protection against traveler / wanderer, one of the adventurers stones
Agate Eyes: Protect from damage to the body and eliminate negative thoughts
Dendritic Agate: Balancing blood sugar levels. Is a cornerstone of the adventurers to provide security and strength
Agate India: Providing physical strength, overcome feelings of insecurity / not prosper and eliminate physical and emotional weakness.
Botswana Agate: Overcoming the uncertainty of the direction and personal goals

Aquamarin gemstones

Aquamarine gemstones in Indonesia known as the ocean blue stone. Aquamarine which means "sea water" is a kind of stone belonging to the mineral beryl (beryl in Greek, which means blue-green) as zamrut. Because the aquamarine and emerald gemstone are very related they are often practically brothers. The colors of the gemstone even this is not far from the name that there are blue-green, green, clear and blue sea but the most desirable aquamarine blue is slightly thick. Aquamarine and emerald alike have value based on the list of hard hard 7.5-8 Mohs, they both occupy in the fifth after the diamond, corundum, chrysoberyl and topaz.
Aquamarine gemstones can also be formed as a cabochon in order to produce the effect of asterism, the effect of light rays produced as star sapphire or ruby ​​star. Aquamarine gemstone can not stand in a high temperature and when heated from 800-900 celsius color will disappear. The amount of iron in the structure will affect the color aquamarine gemstone. Thus the stone's color varies from blue to green, marine blue color of the stones is also influenced by the composition of the iron where it is assembled as well as the level of concentration of the substance in the crystal structure of this beryl. Aquamarine gemstone color can be reformed through heating or heating process. The color is too clear can suit the wishes of the fans in the process. Aquamarine gemstone is also very well known as a stone-free inclusions.
This stone is highly favored by the Europeans. Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro aquamarine stone is said to have had the most good and quality ever found. In 1906, US President Theodore Roosevelt's daughter was given as a gift aquamarine gemstone and since then aquamarine gemstone is said to have increased popular
With advanced technology in this age now people can make synthetic aquamarine of the same material as the original is beryl, but they can be distinguished easily. Aquamarine genuine feel cool to the touch while the fake ones do not, all of the original aquamarine gemstone will float if put into liquid bromoform, while false will sink. This is in contrast to testing topaz gemstone called topaz the original if submerged in liquid bromoform.
For those of you who want to buy aquamarine gemstone need to be careful because the rocks are light blue topaz is often sold as aquamarine gemstone because they are very similar. Topaz and aquamarine gemstone clearly the two different minerals. Topaz originated from crystal arthorhombic while aquamarine (beryl or stone) comes from a family of hexagonal crystals. Physical properties of the rock is very similar but one difference lies in their refraction properties, topaz has a stronger refraction than the ocean blue stone. Composition and hardness are also distinctly different. Sometimes the sellers are not responsible also often use blue zircon stones that have been through a heating process to overhaul its color and sold as aquamarine gemstone. Other similar stones are stones of blue spinel and tourmaline indicolite. Therefore it is important to buy a navy blue stones or other precious stones from a trusted source. Brazil's state produced many aquamarine stone.

Usefulness or benefits of Aquamarine

Aquamarine gemstone believed to have influences among others heightens the sense of affection within a family and give happiness to the work associated with the sea.

In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts

In the world of astrology or astronomy aquamarine gemstone is a stone for people born in March (as well as narcissus or daffodils) and aquamarine gemstone associated with zodiac Pisces.
Amethyst which is a type of mineral quartz rock, from the ancient times until now one of the favorite precious stones elite of the elite royal or state.
Amethyst or amethyst which is the birth stone for someone who was born in February is usually purple to pink. Historically, purple was the color used by the king, the queen and other royal family members. Therefore, the authorities often have the jewelry made of amethyst.

Sea stone

Sea stone is a type of stone that has a beautiful luster and can be used as a ring. The stone has a blue shimmer like sea water and the colors can be engaged when the ring is moved.
It is said that the origin of these stones from the river meets the sea (brackish water) and can still be found on the outskirts of Ciliwung River and other rivers.
Things to note for the owner of the Sea stone is in terms of care that can survive the clear luster. How to care for agate (Sea stone), among others:
If the rock is still material form a first
Soak with water of oxygen in a sealed container
When you are clear, rub stone with diamond powder and skin
Spread with baby oil to keep colors

In carrying out the treatment required patience in practice. If you want to be a ring, a good bond is titanium.

Moonstone

Moonstone is composed of potassium aluminum silicate, rock hard Biduri month has a value of 6-6.5 by hardware list Mohs and responsibilities belong to the precious stones (half-Edelsteen). Biduri moon rock has been known and used by humans as jewelry for centuries. In India this stone including the sacred stone. Very beautiful stone Biduri month, giving the impression of a mysterious and mystical. The light is emitted as the full moon and the price is very expensive.
Biduri stone colors in assortment, there are white, yellow, gray, brown, pink, jinga, while the green and colorless. Be careful buying a stone that is because many are false. Biduri fake moon rock that was made by shells that had been rubbed smooth. The cheap clear opal and sold as a rock Biduri month.
Usefulness or benefits Biduri moon rocks
Biduri moon rock believed to have effects include increase passion, bring a sense of compassion, making a sharp feeling, protect women and babies, and are used for the women to seduce men. But if it does not fit with the wearer of this stone will bring a sense of sadness and melancholy.

In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts

Biduri stone used in special stone suitable for rock and giving birth in June at the anniversary of marriage to 13. In the world of astrology or astronomy Biduri moon rocks associated with Gemini zodiac.

Topaz

Topaz composed of aluminum oxide and kiezelzuur. Topaz has a value based on the list of hard hard 8 Mohs, they occupy fourth place after the diamond, corundum and chrysoberyl. Topaz in Indonesia known by various names such as daud stones, rubies and rock cempaka Selong. Although topaz including very hard rock but the rock should not be hit too hard, too, and in severe temperature changes suddenly can make topaz stones cracked.
In the past most people think of all the yellow stone is topaz and all rock types to be yellow topaz. The color of topaz is also an assortment of them brown, pink, purple and blue. As also colorless or transparent and there also has several colors, but the most desirable or sought is red golden or orange and the most inexpensive and common blue (usually obtained from China). Not a bit of a collector precious stones that can not distinguish between the ruby ​​topaz yellow when they were clearly different. Now mostly blue topaz has been through radiation and combustion processes.
Topaz good quality has a very high luster, bright, color is clear and cool to the touch even slippery. When rub it with hard topaz stones may issue a fire or electrical draw air into small pieces of paper.

Tips knows authenticity topaz

If you are afraid to buy a fake topaz is recommended to buy bromoform (sort of fluid) in pharmacies. Enter the rock into bromoform earlier. If the stone is lost then it is a stone topaz genuine and if the float then topaz was a fake. This is in contrast to testing the aquamarine stone called aquamarine stone is genuine if floating in liquid bromoform.
Topaz is the largest producer of Minas Gerais, the Brazilian state. For 300 years the district area Ouro Preto (Brazil) became the largest supplier in the world with topaz yellow topaz, red and orange light. The other countries are the United States, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Russia, Germany, Mexico, Australia and Myanmar. Topaz crystals are often found with severe for kilometers.

Usefulness or benefits topaz

Topaz is believed to have effects such as increasing assertiveness and think logically, to give a sharp vision and patience, bringing happiness, rejected the danger of diseases such as insanity and protect the wearer from harm's way.

In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts
Topaz made special stone or stone suitable for administration in marriage anniversaries to 4, 19 and 23. In the world of astrology or astronomy topaz is the stone for people born in November (as well as the chrysanthemum) and stone topaz is associated with the zodiac Aries and Sagittarius.

Diamond

Diamond is a mineral which is chemically a crystalline form, or allotrope, of carbon.
Diamond is famous because it has physical properties that special, especially its hardness factor and ability to disperse light. These qualities that make diamonds used in jewelry and various applications in the industrial world.
Especially diamonds mined in central and southern Africa, although significant diamond content have also been found in Canada, Russia, Brazil, and Australia. Approximately 130 million "carat" (26,000 kg) of diamonds are mined annually, which amounts to approximately 9 billion US dollars. In addition, nearly four times the weight of a diamond is made in the lab as synthetic diamonds (synthetic diamond).

Diamond mining

Traditional diamond mining in Cempaka, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan in the Dutch East Indies, especially diamonds mined from volcanic pipes, where the content of diamonds originating from the materials removed from the Earth because of the pressure and temperature suitable for diamond formation.
In Indonesia diamonds have long been mined in the region Martapura, South Kalimantan.
There are diamonds from the bowels of the earth were excavated either manually or with mechanization. Now most diamond miners are already using mechanization, ie with a suction machine to suck up soil that has been dug.
Soil sucked up along the water, sorted through a strainer. With skill, the miners could distinguish ordinary stones, sand, or diamond. Newly acquired diamond is called "galuh" in the area Martapura. Galuh this is still a raw diamond. To make it ready-made, diamond must be polished first. Polishing diamonds in the society is still largely with traditional tools.

Onyx Stone

classified onyx quartz rocks are of three kinds. Black and white basically called ordinary onyx stone, red and white basically called karneol onyx, whereas the old red and white basically named sardonyx. Usually onyx cabochon made into shape and most of the color of the stone has been produced through heating or chemical process and very difficult to distinguish so that the buyer and the seller also many who can not distinguish what is natural and what is not.onyx has a value in the list of class 7 Mohs, although this rock hard but also easily scuffed or scratched if hit hard.

Usefulness or benefits of Onyx Stone

onyx believed to have effects include:
1. Stone recommended for kidney and liver disease.
2. The black onyx stone is able to change the bad habits of the wearer.
3. Making the wearer good at talking.
4. Reduce stress and gives a deep sleep.
5. Being able to dampen the sense of love and lust excessive.
6. To assist or accelerate the growth of skin, nails and hair.
7. Expel air negative, improve intelligence and spiritual inspiration.

The girls were wearing wearing this stone will protect honor and at least not defiled. When people make a signet ring with onyx stones, he would like to fight, like looking for a divorce case and can cause households. So these stones have properties that are not necessarily for the wearer.
In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts: Those who were born between 21 December-20 January (Capricorn group) and 21 July - 20 August (Leo) while still small when put a necklace onyx stone believed to be a fast growing and avoid various diseases.
onyx stones used and the February birth stone wedding gift to 7. In the world of astrology or astronomy obsidian associated with the zodiac Leo.

Obsidian Stone

Obsidian stone quarry but is not actually a type of lava rock spewed from the crater of the volcano. Obsidian rock actually not a rock or mineral, but a natural glass formed from the volcanic lava cooling quickly, since the cooling process is too fast then the rare formation of crystals in it, so no crystal structure in obsidian as other mineral rocks.
The color is clear as glass and black colors are sometimes smooth, dark red, slightly green or gray. This stone is rarely yellow or red white or blue. Obsidian is often found in a glossy smooth, although not polished. Obsidian stone is made of 70% silicon dioxide and even more if certain mineral minerals mixed color will change. Obsidian has a value based on the list of hard hard 5-5.5 Mohs and including medium-precious stones
obsidian in ancient times was the favorite stone used to make weapons, and until now the stone is still used as a surgical instrument. Obsidian stone was first discovered by obsidius hence the name of this stone comes from his name. Obsidian can be found in Japan, Hawaii, Iceland, Mexico, Hungary, Guatemala, Ecuador, New Mexico and Arizona.

Usefulness or benefits of Obsidian stone

Obsidian stone believed to have influences, among others;
1. Curing diseases that are in the area of ​​blood circulation.
2. Eliminate blockage of the healing process.
3. Increase the wisdom and strength.
4. In Italy, France and the Netherlands this stone believed to be a talisman repellent evil spirits that must be held in each house.
5. People also believe who use this stone will have supernatural powers and he will be protected from skin disease.
In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts: obsidian stone used as the birth stone of December. In the world of astrology or astronomy obsidian associated with zodiac Sagitarius.


Opals

Opals are amorfis form of silica related to quartz (mineraloid its shape, not mineral). Of 3% up to 21% of the overall weight is water, but the contents are usually between 6% to 10%. Opal formed at relatively low temperatures and in the cracks of each rock type, generally found together with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl and basalt. 97% opal comes from Australia and is the national gemstone.
Structure in opal make it able to spread the light; depending on the condition of the rock was formed that allowed him to bring a variety of colors. Opal color varies from clear to white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, slat, olive, brown, and black. Of these colors, red and black are the rarest, while white and green are very common. Opal also vary in optical density ranging from opaque to semi-transparent. For use in gemstone, natural color is often used by putting a thin layer of opal in dark stone such as basalt.
Opal has a value based on the list of hard hard 5.5-6.5 Mohs, they occupy at number eight. Its composition was rather simple: kiezelzuur and water and various metals that cause opals reflect the wide range of colors. Of all kinds of variations of colors, opal red and black are the most rare and white and green are the most common. Opals have a basic black background is more valuable than white ones. But of all the opals reflect the wide range of colors is the highest value. Because one composition of opal is water (3-10% even up to 20%) so be careful not to let these stones become too dry because it will be easy to crack, also do not hit too hard therefore. Opal is also the national stone of country Australia. Opals are also much favored by kings and nobles.
Opal jewel colors on the game due to the fine granules of silica are arranged very neatly and serves to deflect light and emit it, causing the colors of the rainbow popping when viewed from different angles.

There are several types of opal are known to the general public such as:

Opal ordinary (common opal): opal color that does not show the game at all.
White opal (white opal): opal white, gray, white milk, has only a slight iridescence or none at all.
Opal (black opal): rather dark colored opal black or brown in color game, making it more contrast.
Boulder opal: opal are still attached to the rock.
Matrix opal: opal are still attached to the rock as lines or spots of color.
Fire opal: opal opaque or slightly transparent red, orange, yellow or brownish with a slight iridescence or none at all.

Usefulness or benefits of opals

Maybe opal is one of rock believed to have a bad influence and influence is good for the wearer, as well as The Hope diamond or Koh-i-noor. The opposite of trust that often make people confused which one is true. One belief some people that opal is not good and just cause lust only for the owner, making a chaotic mind, shake the nerves. Pious women when wearing this stone in a few months could be a flirtatious woman and love "naughty". Chinese people also consider this stone can destroy the harmony of the household, and give adverse effects on health.
But there are also some people who believe that having an opal can be happy user (generally glowing if the owner was happy and did not shine if the owner was moody), curing eye diseases, weak penis or impotence, and improve memory. Black opal he should not be just anyone to have, if it does not fit the opal it will bring disaster, and if appropriate, it will bring happiness for the owner.
In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts: opal stone used as a special stone or stone suitable for birthstones month of October (the same as calendula flowers) and the provision on the anniversary of marriage to 14. In the world of astrology or astronomy opal associated with the zodiac Libra and Scorpio.

Emerald

Emerald and Dutch smagrad belong to the beryl mineral types, together with aquamarine stone. They both have a value based on the list of hard hard 7.5-8 Mohs, they both occupy in the fifth after the diamond, corundum, chrysoberyl and topaz. Pure beryl is colorless, but when the chemical element chromium joined then formed emerald or emerald green. The most ideal color is emerald green leaves.
A mixture of chromium resulting emerald green color as the presence of chromium that has given color to ruby ​​red (ruby). Along with the emerald jade gemstone may be the most desirable green color. If the beryl family, the emerald became rock's most sought after due to the beauty of its color, its rarity and durability. Emerald green color is too light and sometimes more recognized as green beryl stone.
Most emeralds have cracks smooth as fibers. But on all the gems, disability needed to identify whether naturally occurring (natural) or synthetic (artificial laboratory results). One of the nice side of the emerald is heat resistant and not easily changed colors. The downside is that emerald is one of the most difficult rock cut and although they were very hard but the emerald should not be hit too hard
Disability in the jade can be hidden by using oil on the stone. The oil also vary, from mineral oil until the oil is specially created from generation to generation. They should not be immersed in the ultrasonic because this process can remove coatings. Another effective way to hide defects emerald is using irradiation.
Emeralds are flawless until now has never been found, so each inclusion on emerald can be considered as a fingerprint of each stone that gives a distinct identity. So if there is a perfect emerald free inclusion of the stores, it can be said that the stone is a fake. When during the crystallization process in emerald, some geological disturbances always happen, that's why all the emeralds are found with inclusions such as cracks, bubbles, carbon crystal grains or foreign in it.
Also note if you want to buy an emerald, you need to be careful because a lot of circulating fake emeralds. Sometimes two pale-colored stones are often glued together with a dark green paste. Sometimes also green glass sculpture is coated with a hard substance to resemble emerald and sold at a high price.
Fake emerald stone is then given various names such as Kimberly Emerald, Emerald Chatham, Biron Emerald, Emerald Gilson, Linde Emerald, Emerald Lennix, Regency Emerald, Emerald Zerfass and others. Other precious stones are often used to imitate emerald and sold for the original emerald is peridot, tourmaline, chrome diopside, zircon, garnet Hiddenite and green. Therefore it is important to buy jade or other precious stones from a trusted source.
High-quality emeralds are found in Muzo and Chivor, Colombia. Other mines are in Sandawana (Zimbabwei), Kitwe (Zambia), and Pakistan.

Usefulness or benefits emerald

The emerald is believed to have influences among others, as stones bring luck or fortune, leveraging its expertise in terms of communication and diplomatic, and alerts the owner if there is something bad is going to happen (the color will change to white).
In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts: emerald made special stone or stone suitable for administration in anniversaries marriage to 20, 35 and to 55. In the world of astrology or astronomy emerald is the stone for people born in May (same as the lily of the valley) and the emerald is associated with Taurus and Cancer zodiac.


Ruby

Ruby is a type of mineral corundum gemstones like sapphire precious stone. Its name comes from the Greek word "ruber" meaning red. Rubies or ruby ​​made of aluminum oxide and red color due to the mixture of chromium. Rubies hard value is 9 in the list of hard Mohs and specific gravity 3.99 to 4.
Colour ruby ​​red is not always fixed but there are also red yellowish or orange, magenta or pink, but of all the most valuable or sought is red. Basically pure corundum is colorless, all colors in gemstones is caused by other chemical elements that join the process of crystallization occurs. High-quality rubies can rival diamonds in terms of price because they are rarer than diamonds. If rubies is heated up to 1000 Celsius, the color will be pink and will return again the original color (red) when it's cold. One of the greatest rubies come from Burma, the "Lord of the Rubies" in the amount of eggs pigeons.
In the world of precious stones trading is no longer surprised when we hear precious stones heated to deliberately alter or embellish the stones such as its color, luster, formation and others. An estimated 90% of stones-rubies or sapphires going through the process, a process that is permanent and has been accepted in any trade of precious stones. Although this process can change worthless stone to stone, very costly but this action can be risky because such actions can cause the stone is broken, cracked, broken and in some instance the color of the stones even disappear.

Usefulness or benefits ruby

In addition to diamonds, rubies are also widely used as a gift item for the woman of your dreams or lover as a symbol of eternal love. Rubies are also many believed to be a stone that could give hockey or protect the property of the owner, making the owner more stylish and confident, cure certain diseases such as impotence and has aspects of mystique that repel negative things or evil influences (color believed will turn dark if something bad is coming).
In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts: ruby ​​special stone or stones used are suitable for administration in anniversaries marriage to 40. In the world of astrology or astronomy ruby ​​is the stone for people born in July (the same as larkspur flowers or interest dolphin) and rubies are connected with the zodiac Scorpio, Capricorn and Cancer.

Jade stone

Jade stone is a kind of "green jewel" is one of a kind gemstone in it consists of many elements of the mineral have been discovered and used by the east for thousands of years ago. At this time jade many from the region of Tibet, China and Burma as an export commodity. Jade is also believed efficacious makes peace, joy and health, safety.
During the course of history after the discovery, jade has been known as an accessories and jewelry for thousands of years ago by human civilization. Even heralded as "rock saviors" even as "health stone" by tribes in East Asia and on the African or America including by the Mayans and Incas.
Even in today's medical world is also believed to improve health have also been used in human civilization thousands of years ago. It is widely recorded in many ancient medical books and is recognized as a source of natural energy. In the medical world, this stone is widely used to improve blood circulation, anti-aging, boost immunity and relieve fatigue. Jade is also widely used at the time of Ceragem massage therapy. Additionally the investigation showed that jade contains many important elements such as calcium, potassium, iron and magnesium.
Jade become the most desirable stones in jewelery, medical and uniqueness so that this stone also has many models depending upon the stone was polished and shaped.

The shape and size of jade

Historically, jade is the only type of gemstone that is honed and shaped in many sizes and models. Honed and shaped jade ranging from the size of a table, a large sculpture to small sculptures, pendants, earrings, rings up of buttons. The shape is also diverse, ranging from the form of statues of Buddha, dragon statues and other sculptures, also square, oblong, oval, rectangular three square up a lot. Besides the shape, the color of jade also varied, ranging from white, yellow, red to green the most popular.
Jade in China has been known in approximately 4000 BC. In the days of royal jade in great demand by the Chinese, and jade into traditional stone Chinese empire. Ranging from the manufacture of weapons, tools or furniture, engraving text or images as well as all use jade jewelry.

Various jade

Jade consists of two kinds; nephrite and Jadeit. Both in fact are different minerals, Jadeit harder than nephrite but more easily cracked. Jadeite approximately as hard as quartz stone. White jade is nephrite and is usually used and the high value in China at the time was nephrite. Turquoise, orange-red and lavender colors usually always jadeite, a type of stone is more rare and valuable at this time.
Jade has a hard value 6-6.5 (Nephrite), 6.5-7 (Jadeite) is based on a list of hard Mohs. Nephrite is made of calcium silicate and magnesium, while jadeite is a silicate of sodium and aluminum. Other substances that may be contained in jadeites are calcium, potassium, chromium, magnesium, titanium, manganese and water. In a microscope observation, nephrite appear as blobs are interwoven like fiber filaments. Jadeite shows a more crystalline structure.
Jade is also touted as "the toughest gemstone", the meaning is the strongest stone amongst other precious stones, even stronger than diamond or diamonds. Holds a diamond or diamond the hardest stone of all kinds of stone in the world but the diamond easily cracked and broken if hit hard enough because although the composition of the composition of the diamond structure makes them hard but the 'brittle'. Stone diamond can only be cut by another diamond stone and will not be scratched by other types of stone.
Jade easily scratched and is very soft when compared to diamonds, but anti-crack or fracture resistance of jade is very high. Therefore, jade is often used as weapons or other weapons of war at the time of the Chinese empire.

The colors jade

Jade color assortment, there is a milky white, greenish white, green, dark green and even some are gray and reddish-brown or red. However jade the most sought after and desirable is the clear dark green. Imperial jade is the name given to jade that is considered the most qualified, emerald green color must be clear and slightly thickened.
The color of imperial jade green stones in due to the presence of substances chromium, while the presence of iron (Fe) produce paler shade of green, blue-green or blue-black. The darkest color typically contain a relatively high amount of iron oxide. For lovers and collectors of jade, be careful because many dealers are white jade color to resemble the color of jade imperial jade and sell them at a higher price.
Although jade today is one of the most beautiful gemstones and affordable, unfortunately, this stone also become one of rock's most widely counterfeited. It is recommended that buy jade or other precious stones from a trusted source.

Usefulness or benefits of jade

The Chinese believe that if wearing jade and jade eventually become more greenish the mean hockey for the wearer and the more green the better (just do the opposite). Jade was also believed to have influences among others as a talisman or hockey stuff, refuse poisoning or infection, drive away the negative or black magic, improve the health and happiness of households, avoiding hostility and despair.
Jade In the astrology, zodiac and wedding gifts

Jade made special stone or stones that are suitable for birth stone march and giving in marriage anniversaries to 35. In the world of astrology or astronomy jade associated with the zodiac Virgo.

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